“Blessed are the peacemakers; for they shall be called the children of God.” (Matthew 5:9)
Birth and childhood:
Maurice Michael Cardinal Otunga was born on January, 1923, in Chebukwa, in the then diocese of Kisumu, Kenya. He was the son of Wasike Lusweti ‘Sudi’, a traditional paramount chief of the Bakhone (or Bukusu) who has about seventy recognized as true wives, and a diviner Rosa Namisi. He was named ‘Otunga”, which meant a staff on which the elderly or the ill lean for support. The original name was Odunga but the Lubukusu language does not had a “d” sound, so it was eventually changed to Otunga. He converted to Catholicism and was baptized in 1935 in Kabibii Parish; he took the names Maurice Michael. His father was baptized in 1963 and his mother in 1965.
Cardinal Otunga attended the following schools; Mill Hill School, Kibabii, 1931-1933; Mill Hill School, Sijei, 1933-1034; back to Kisibii, 1934; Holy Ghost School, Kabaa, 1935-1939; Holy Ghost School, Mangu, 1939-1943; St. Peter the Apostle Minor Seminary, Mukumu; Ggaba Major Seminary in Kampala, Uganda (philosophy and theology); (in 1947, he declined to become paramount chief when his father retired); Pontifical Urbanian or Propaganda Fide, Rome, 1947-1950, and attained a licentiate in theology, September 1951.
He was ordained on 3rd October 1950, in Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumason Biondi, who was then the Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. He did his further studies in Rome, 1950-1951. He travelled in Europe for a few months in 1951, visiting Northern Italy, Paris, Lourdes, England and Ireland. He returned to Kenya in the same year, 1951, and worked as professor of theology at St. Peter’s Seminary, Kakamega, for three years, 1951-1954. He also worked as Secretary to James Know, the titular archbishop of Melitnee, apostolic delegate in British Africa from 1954-1956, then he was residing in Mombasa. During that time, he travelled extensively in Africa with the delegate.
He was elected titular bishop of Tacape and appointed auxiliary of Kisumu, on 17th November 1956. He was consecrated on 25th February 1957, in St. Peter’s Seminary grounds, Kakamega, by James Robert Knox, titular archbishop of Melitene, apostolic delegate in British Africa, assisted by John Joseph McCarthy, Archbishop of Nairobi, and by Frederick Hall, bishop of Kisumu. He was then transferred to the diocese of Kisii, May 21, 1960. He attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. He was appointed the Military Vicar of Kenya on 20th January 1964. He was promoted to titular archbishop of Bomarza and appointed coadjutor of the Archdiocese of Nairobi, with right of succession on November 15, 1969. On 24th October 1971, he acceded to the Metropolitan See in Nairobi. He served the Chairman of the Kenya Episcopal Conference and also the Vice-Chairman of the Association of Episcopal Conferences of East Africa (AMECEA). He was also a member of the Permanent Commission of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar SECAM).
He was created cardinal priest in the consistory on March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of St. Gregory Barbarigo at Tre Fontane on 5th March 1973. He attended the 111 Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974 and the IV Ordinary Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, in September 30 to October 29, 1977 and worked as member of its General Secretariat form 1977-1980. When Pope Paul VI died in 1978, he participated in the conclave of August 25 and 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. He attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, from November 26 to October 25, 1980 and was a member of its General Secretariat between 180-1983. He became the Military Ordinary for Kenya on January 24, 1981. He was the first Chancellor of the Catholic university of Eastern Africa (CUEA).
He was also a Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, in May 31, 1981. He also attended the Special Assembly of the World Synod of Bishops for Africa, in Vatican City, and April 10 to May 8, 194. He retired from the pastoral government of the Archdiocese of Nairobi on May 4, 1997. He also resigned the Military Ordinariate on September 13,1997. After his retirement, he decided to live in a home for the aged, Nyumba ya Wazee, in Ruaraka. He lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on January 2003 and therefore did not participate in the conclave for the election of Benedict XVI. He spent his last days until he did at Nyumba ya Wazee hold for the elderly. He was the first Kenyan priest to become a bishop, and archbishop and a cardinal. He was also the longest serving bishop by the time of his death.
The Cardinal died on September 6, 2003, 6.45 a.m., of cardiac arrest, at the intensive care unit of Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Nairobi. His body was laid to rest according to his will, in Saint Austin’s cemetery, Msongari, Nairobi. It was immediately evident that a great and holy man had died, and the whispers of “the cardinal was saintly man” could be heard passing between bowed heads.
As time passed, the whispers became increasingly confident, and soon, calls were openly heard, requesting the canonization of the Cardinal. In February 2005, the starting of plans for his beatification was announced. The first step was the exhumation and relocation of his mortal remains to the Resurrection Gardens in Karen, Nairobi in a Chapel specially built for that. This was immediately opposed by the Bukusu community, from which the late Cardinal came, arguing that the move was likely to bring a curse on the community. However, it was finally done and his remains are now in the Resurrection Gardens in Karen, Nairobi.
This humble servant of God was an instrument of peace and reconciliation for our community. And this is what I propose in this paper, that the late Maurice Michael Cardinal Otunga, now declared Servant of God, was both a peacemaker and a reconciler. To make a good reflection on these, we begin by a short reflection on the meaning of peace, then we shall look at the meaning and dimensions of reconciliation and finally we merge them together as while proposing the Cardinal a peacemaker/reconciler.
Peace is said to exist when a society or a relationship is operating harmoniously and without violence or conflict. Peace is commonly understood as the absence of hostility or the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal, social or international relationships. It is understood to be safety in maters of social or economic welfare, the acknowledgment of equality and fairness in political relationships. In international relations, peacetime is the absence of any war or conflict. The study of peace also involves the causes for its absence or loss. These potential causes: insecurity, social in justice, economic inequality, political and religious radicalism, and acute racism and nationalism. Freedom has also been described as the experience that a person or a community gets once all relationships are right. These are relationships with God, the neighbor and the self.
Peace is the ultimate goal of a successful process of reconciliation. The personalized meaning is reflected in a nonviolent lifestyle, which also describes a relationship between any person characterized by respect, justice and goodwill. This latter understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual’s sense of himself or herself, as to be “at peace” with one’s own mind. The early English term is also used in the sense of “quite”, a reflecting calm, serenity, and meditative mood in an in individual, a family or community; it describes group relationships that avoid quarreling and seek tranquility – an absence of disturbance or agitation.
The meaning of reconciliation is complex and multi-faceted. As a process “reconciliation is along and multi-layered. At the national lecel1, reconciliation means knowing a people’s or a country’s history and acknowledging the bad as well as the good. It means understanding and embracing differences: of language, of culture, of law, of social status. Reconciliation is about ensuring that all people have their rights as a nation. Reconciliation is about acknowledging the wrongs o the past and pledging as a nation to right them”.
At its core, it is about addressing the divisions between peoples, divisions that have been caused by a lack of tolerance to one another, lack of respect, lack of acceptance, lack of mutual knowledge, lack of understanding. Reconciliation is about recognizing the truth of a people or a nation’s history, and moving forward together with a commitment to social justice, and building relationships based on mutual understanding, tolerance, acceptance, respect and trust.
The Social justice for a people must include: recognition of the distinct rights of every person, including the right to self determination; reparations for past injustices, elimination of all factors causing racism and discrimination, and closing the gaps between all peoples in health provision, education availability, social services, in political representation, and economic opportunities. Achieving reconciliation involves raising awareness and knowledge of history and culture of various peoples, changing attitudes that are often based on myths and misunderstandings, and encouraging positive action by everyone, action that builds better relationship between them.
Reconciliation takes place in the hearts and minds of all people involved in the process, and through people working together to change communities, workplaces, sectors and organizations around the country.
In summary we could say reconciliation is a holistic process involving the mind, heart, soul and body of a person, leading to peaceful relationships. It is a change from anger, fear, revenge, alienation or hostility to calm, confidence, forgiveness, friendship and intimacy. This is achieved though installation of justice and a spirit of acceptance and forgiveness.
The various dimensions of Reconciliation
Reconciliation has four major dements:
(a) The cosmic diminution
Reconciliation is a process that involves not just people but the whole cosmos. In 2Cor 5:19 Paul states “God was in Christ reconciling the worked to himself”. And in Rom.11:15 he talks of the reconciliation of the whole world. While in 1Cro 1:20-22 he says, “… and through him to reconcile all things to himself, everything in heaven and everything on earth by making peace through death on the cross. You were different and of hostile intent through our evil behavior; now he has reconciled you by his death and in that mortal body, to bring you before himself holy, faultless and irreproachable as along as you stand firm on the solid base of faith…”
(b) The horizontal dimension
Reconciliation has to do with one to one relationship as evidenced in Eph 2:11-19. “But now in Christ Jesus you who used to be far off have been brought close, by the blood of Christ. For he is the peace between us…” This is the section in which Paul treats the bridging of the gap between the Jew and the Gentile, the reconciliation between them. They have been brought as Christians by the one sacrifice of Jesus on the Cross.
(c) The vertical dimension
When all people have been reconciled to each other, then as one thy are brought to God. All believers are reconciled by the death of Christ. This vertical dimension, which is actually reconciliation with God, is indeed the WORK OF SALVATION. Note the relationship of the CROSS to reconciliation. Note also, very importantly, that, in tuen, we have been given God’s work of reconciliation and made into RECONCILLORS ourselves. In 2 Cor 5; 18 Paul says, “It is all God’s work, he reconciled us to himself through Christ and he gave us the ministry of reconciliation.” God is the initiator of reconciliation, which He did through Christ. But He has given us the ministry of reconciling ourselves with others.
The apostles were the first to whom this mandate was entrusted, and they carried it out with enthusiasm. Already in Acts 10 44-48, the entire house of Cornelius is baptized. In Act 15 there is already the first Church Council which deliberated on what the already existent church would do with the new Gentile converts and what conditions to give them.
Today the church continues the ministry of reconciliation which has been handed down generation after generation up to present times. Paul carried it to the ends of the known worked but that was the world of the time. It is our turn to carry it on.
(d) The eschatological dimension
This dimension shows that reconciliation consists in bringing all things together under Christ’s leadership, as a new creation. Paul says in 2 Cor 5:17-18 “so for anyone who is in Christ, there is a new creation; the old order is gone and a new being is there. WE see it all as God’s work; He reconciled to us through Christ and he gave us the ministry of reconciliation.” The reign of God will being reconciliation between all people. This peace implies a messianic kingdom, which is brought by Christ through his cross. And again in Eph 2:14ff “for he is the peace between us and has made the two one entity and broken down the barrier which used to keep them apart…”
God the Father gave his son Jesus who came into the world and healed the broken relationship between the Father and humanity. Paul therefore says we are now able to call Him Abba, Father. The initiative was from the Father who gave humanity and advocate. Imagine a father whose child thugs have attached and killed. The child’s father sues them and then the same father who brought them to court gets them an advocate to argue our their case. This is what the Heavenly Father did for humanity.
Cardinal Otunga, an agent of peace and reconciliation
As I have said above, I propose in this paper to look at the life of Maurice Michael Cardinal Otunga as the Servants of God who involved himself with the process of reconciliation aimed at bringing about peace among the people of Kenya. We will focus on him from the four dimensions of reconciliation.
In 1995 there were some positive and negative interactions between the Muslim ad Christian communities in Kenya. David C. Sperling in his article entitled Islam and the Religious Dimensions of conflict in Kenya, writes:
“One place where Christian-Muslim relations have been particularly strained is the Merti trading centre north of Isiolo, where Christian missionary work has brought about the conversion of a number of Waso Borana families from Islam to Christianity. Recently, Muslim have been embroiled in a dispute over the use of land by the Catholic mission there. According to newspaper reports, and “anti-Christian” demonstration was held “threatening to burn all Christians” in the town. Such incidents of Christian-Muslim conflict are, however, the exception rather than the rule. And there are some quite remarkable instances of inter-religious cooperation and recognition… In August 195, the imam of the Jamia Mosque,, Ali Shee, and the Archbishop of Nairobi, Maurice Cardinal Otunga, conducted, a joint ceremony in which they condemned the family life education programme of the Kenya government.”
Cardinal Otunga clearly took up his role as that of a reconciler who would not stay at the edge and watch things happen in silence but he clearly acted as the voice of the people condemning an issue that could not be worthy for the people of God. He intervened and acted in manner that would bring about peace between God and his people, respect for what God has set a natural order.
In the horizontal level, Jesus has reconciled and brought peace between different peoples, jew and Gentile, slave and free, men and women. An effective peacemaker /reconciler is also an efficient peacekeeper and therefore a valuable effective instrument of this ministry.He is a pacifist.If you push him for an explanations such as: “I see the worlds as one” or “we are brothers and sisters” a federated world is the answer”or “love is the key” etc. None of this is wrong in and of itself. Pacifism is often humanistic, politically, culturally, or socially determined. Human pacifists often come from intellectual ,high-class, educated minority who appreciate people and dismisss some obvious ethnic or cultural differences.
Like St.Paul who argues that with Christ’s coming there is no longer male or female but rather that they all are all children of God ,Cardinal Otunga believed that both the boy child and girl child needed equal chances of education in the early 1970s the Archdiocese of Nairobi through local and international efforts procured funding to move the premier Catholic sponsored school, Mang’u High School from the small old compound it had occupied since 1940.The grounds were spacious and the infrastructure was to be built in three or four phrases,all designed from scratch.When construction was finished,the school moved to the new site.
Subsequently, there arose the question of the old site…how was it going to be used? One school of thought,championed by several local leaders,was thinking of starting a technical school to be located on Mang’u old site.This was apparently a good idea, given the need for technical education in a developing country .The idea of a technical school gained ground very fast.
But they forgot that the land was on which old Mang’u had stood belonged to the Catholic Church and Maurice Otunga was Archibishop of Nairobi. Nobody had consulted him regarding the idea of a technical school or to do with the old site .The Archbishop had an idea different from the technical school, school of thought .And so there was a disagreement.
Finally this disagreement found its way to the highest authority in the land.The president listened to both sides.Then he gave his verdict.The church owned the land; therefore, let the church decide what to do with the property. The Archbishop decided in favour of the girls’ school and the president agreed with him: the promotion of the girls’ education at both primary and secondary levels was paramount in the country. That’s how St. Francis Girls’ High school was born.
Apart from questions of ownership of property and its use, there were other issues that the others failed to see, or say, address. But in the mind of the Archbishop, priorities were clear. As a matter of pastoral priority, the Archbishop promoted girl-child education with vigour in the dioceses. He was acutely aware of the patriarchal structures in which education operated in Kenya and the historical disadvantages suffered by girls and women in society.As a matter of fact, there existed a yawning gap between education opportunities for girls and education opportunities for boys.This disparity needed to be addressed specifically, without compromising the education of male-child in the society. This was long before talk about the women-right and education of the girl-child became part of the mainsream discourse.
A quick look at the biblical peacemaker reveals that their lives are rooted and grounded in the universal expression of God’s truth. A peacemaker shares the spirit and mission of Christ, for as Paul said: “For he himself is our peace, who made both groups into one, broke down the barrier of dividing wall …that in Himself He might make the two into one new man,thus establishing peace.” (Ephesians 2:14,NASB.) Jesus hung on a cross that might find peace with God through His blood. Jesus was a peacemaker, and to you and to me He issues the same call.
The Servant of God Maurice Michael Cardinal Otunga demonstrated a deep sense of an apostle,
convinced that he was a witness, a visible representative of Christ. An apostle does not claim to have his own mission but that of his master, Jesus. He did this in a special way in the 1990’s when he led Catholics and Muslims in burning condoms in Uhuru park. This, as expected gave him negative publicity from those who would raise questions such as: why is this man so anti-science, so anti-modern culture, so conservative? Doesn’t the rising poverty in Kenya and the population explosion in the land? Cardinal Otunga considered his position to be informed not only by the teaching authority or Magisterium of the church but also by a pro-life attitude or philosophy of life.
We are of the kingdom of the world; we are soldiers for Christ and our command is to be peacemakers. George Fox expressed this succinctly in his declaration to Charles 11 in 1661: “We utterly deny all outward wars and strife and fighting with outward weapons, for any end or under any pretence whatsoever. And this is our testimony to the whole world. The spirit of Christ, by which we are guided, is not changeable, so as to once command us a thing of evil and again move unto it; and we do certainly know, and so testify to the world, that the spirit of Christ, which leads us into all truth, will never move us to fight and war against any man with outward weapons, neither for the kingdom of Christ, nor for the kingdoms of this world.” The call to peacemaking is the call to an evangelical lifestyle. Jesus was the person born a peacemaker, a reconciler, by nature, harmonizing in His own self, divinity and humaniy, because He was God –Man.
Cardinal Otunga knew deep down in his heart the role of prayer in bringing about peace with God, the neighbor and the self. The creation and development of the Ressurection Garden as a serene place of prayer was accompanied by critism and questioning. Many critics questioned the Cardinal’s wisdom in investigating so much time, money and energy in a place of prayer.Wouldn’t have been wiser to open a technical school, or build an orphanage or rehabilitate a slum and thus improve the quality of life of the people in a more tangible way? But he opted for a place of prayer as a priority. For Cardinal Otunga, prayer was an integral part of human life. But Cardinal Otunga saw what people may not have seen, the need of serenity in prayer as a tool for peacemaking and reconciliation between God, the self and the neighbor. I guess he must have been inspired by Jesus’ example from the gospel of Luke, where Luke reports that Jesus would occasionally spend a whole night in prayer. Night-time provided serenity that is indispensable fro prayer. Otunga gave Kenya a serene place of prayer, the Resurrection Garden. Today, it is one of the most popular pilgrimage destinations in Kenya for our faithful. Many groups, associations, movements, of women, men, youth, even children occasionally ask their patrons to organize for them a trip to the Resurrection Garden. I congratulate the committee that considered the Resurrection Gardens as a serene place worthy for the Servants of God’s final resting place. That is the proper resting place of his mortal remains.
A peacekeeper respects state and political authorities. He does not base his life on a political philosophy, and therefore he does not see the government as the enemy. Therefore he has no cause of fear. Cardinal Otunga respected government authorities but was never quiet if they went wrong. He would state the correct position without fear. Once when the government authorities were reluctant to give plots of land where permanent worship structures could be built (but of course they would take such for themselves) he told them in the face, “You are more temporary than thatched houses!”
In the vertical level, Jesus reconciled all humanity to God thus bridging the gap between al peoples with God. We could rightly argue that after having brought about peace among different peoples, he then brought those already reconciled, to God. Jesus was the Immanuel, God with us. He made humanity experience God living among them. Through him, it was possible to see God, and taste God etc. This presence is now made possible by his appointed servants.
Cardinal Otunga brought God to his flock. In all the 80 plus parishes of the Archdiocese of Nairobi, virtually every parishioner who participated in parish life before 1997 when the cardinal retired will tell you his/her impression of Cardinal Otunga. And it is likely to be more than an impression; it will be an experience. The cardinal was a shepherd whose presence was felt in every, and he would make sure to visit every parish at lest once a year. And there were times he would show up inn a parish unannounced when he finally retired to the Mji wa Wazee, it was a fascinating to see how well he fitted there, and how freely he interacted with the elderly. They would come and sit around him and just chat. It was very inspiring to note that he set aside time for the Eucharistic celebration for his new community, the Wazee. Besides, he continued to take some selected appointments with some of the faithful who wanted to consult him a point or two or just to pay him a visit.
Let me put it this way, that Maurice Cardinal Otunga’s presence as shepherd was felt in all the parishes of the Archdiocese of Nairobi, without being, in a literal sense ubiquitous. It was a caring presence. He was always present as shepherd to his flock and to the individual person.
In the eschatological dimension, a peacemaker/reconciler knows that at the end of time, al creation should be directed to God for the final peace at the end of time, in heaven, where there will be no struggle, no conflict, no contention, no war. The central point of focus for the peacemaker/reconciler is not in himself but in God. He directs everything to God. He understands himself as just an agent. Jesus put it very well in Luke 17:9 – “So with you: when you have done all you have been told to do, say, “We are useless servants: we have done no more than our duty.” Metaphorically he is like the donkey that carried Jesus into Jerusalem during his final triumphal entry. The peacemaker may receive acknowledgement and rewards for is good work of meditation in search of peace for different warring groups etc but the final focus for him is the final reconciliation with God. But in fact, the end result is not just here but at the end time. To achieve this ultimate goal, the pacemaker must necessarily acknowledge God’s sovereignty and trust in his intervention in the process and to live a life that demonstrates moral authority.
The ethical icons of our times have become moral authorities not because they are faultless but on account of their courage to live what they believe in, IN SEASON AND OUT OF SEASON. This courage makes it possible to bridge that gap between TALK AND TALK, under ordinary circumstances an when the going gets difficult. This is why moral authority is able to leave a legacy.
Many will agree that moral authorities or role models of the 20th century of our times, including Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King Jnr, were courageous men who fought oppressive regimes in a peaceable way, thus giving a new lease of life to an ethic of ACTIVE NON-VIOLENCE. From South Africa we cannot forge the courage of Steve Biko who was killed by the apartheid regime for his insistence that all humans are equal irrespective of race, by virtue of their being created in the image and likeness of God. Nelson Mandela was imprisoned unjustly for over 25 years for insisting on the same God-given human dignity.
I personally have memories of encounters with Cardinal Otunga. I visited him in his house quite a number of times, so that we even came to know one another. Most of those times, of course, I went to him on missions of my bishop, the late Most Rev. Nicodemus Kirima, who was the Archbishop of Nyeri. I also visited him several times when he was in the Nyumba ya Wazee, at Kasarani. I remember the kindly way in which he received me, so that I felt myself very much accepted and welcomed. He was able to easily bridge the gap between a person like me and himself. He was surrounded by an air of calm and serenity that I could immediately understand as being founded in powerful godliness, say holiness. One could see that he was, in himself, a very reconciled person, with himself, with others and with God. I was always impressed by his sense of assurance and confidence, which was contagious; in other words, he made other people to feel confident and assured. Your would feel, more thank know, that he knew what he was saying and doing.
Once again, I propose that Maurice Cardinal Otunga was a peacemaker, in the same league as Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jnr; that stands with the likes of Steve Biko and Nelson Mandela and that he walks alongside Mother Teresa of Kalkota. Though the humble ambassador of God would almost certainly object to being called so, he is an eloquent voice for our times, not so much in the manned of talk but certainly by his mode of walk.
Like all the others enlisted above, Cardinal Otunga’s power was in his powerlessness. He may mistakenly have been taken for a silent man, but he was up to speed with necessary actions that needed to be taken. A case in point was during the tribal clashes in 1991 to 1992. when the clashes had spread wide, affecting the three dioceses of Kisumu, Nakuru and Eldoret, the bishops of the three dioceses, Archbishop Zacheaus Okoth of Kisumu, Ndingi then Bishop of Nakuru and Cornelius Korir of Eldoret, joined together with Archbishop John Njenga, then archbishop of Mombasa, Bishop John Njue then bishop of Embu and Father Ndikaru was Teresia, the editor of Mwananchi magazine, and visited the affected areas. Then later, on 24th January 1991, the Cardinal invited Bishop Ndingi to his house in Nairobi. It was then that he clearly declared: “We must do something to defend the people.” That was clear concern for the people of God and what affected them.
When finally Cardinal Otunga retired, he is reported by some faithful who visited him at the Mji wa Wazee as saying, “now I have enough time to bring myself and all our people to God in prayer.” He would always add, “And bring them to the Immaculate Hear of Mary and to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.”
It is my humble and honest hope that after these brief reflections on the life and times of the Servant of God Maurice Michael Cardinal Otunga, we can all embrace the challenges it poses to us, to become instruments of peace and reconciliation within ourselves, our families, religious houses, dioceses, communities and our countries.
Once again, “Happy are the peacemakers, because they will be called sons of God.” If you are not a peacemaker or reconciler you will never be called a son or daughter of God. But if you bring warring parties to reconciliation, you will stand on the same podium with Christ, who is indeed the peacemaker per excellence. Dear friends, the life of Cardinal Otunga gives us a very good example. If you want to be a peacemaker, you do not have to write treatises on peace and reconciliation. Yours simple life will write all. Somebody wrote, “War is outdated; militarism is a philosophy of the dead.” Pursuing the coarse of peace and reconciliation brings humanity a step towards the climax that St. Paul talks about, when all will be all in God. Let us also pray for the success of the cause of beatification of Cardinal Otunga.
I take this opportunity to thank the Vice chancellor, Very Rev. Prof. John Maviiri, Fr. Paul Ng’ang’a and the entire CUEA community for inviting me to those occasion. Thanks for your invitation and for listening to me, and may God bless you.
Bibliography . Ogola, Margaret A. and Roche, Margaret. Cardinal Otunga: a gift of grace. Nairobi, Kenya:
Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.
Former Chari of NSW State Reconciliation Committee, Linda Burnery, 1999
David C. Sperling, Islam and the Religious Dimensions of conflict in Kenya.